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                                  Application and Significance of Lithium Thionyl Chloride Batteries in Wireless Water Meters

                                  Nowadays, traditional wireless water meters, in solving pain points of clients, have such defects as unstable data transmission, high overall power consumption, and unreliable meter reading. The water meter industry, featuring sustainable development, possesses a promising market outlook. China is now transitioning from traditional mechanical water meters to IoT wireless water meters. It is widely believed that wireless water meters, which are safe, convenient, and intelligent, will become mainstream products in the market.


                                  Incomplete statistics show that, in the Chinese water meter market, intelligent water meters account for about 20% to 30% of the market. Their market share increases each year. Intelligent water meters can be divided into four categories according to communication mode:
                                  (1) mechanical meters: metering with mechanical methods and requiring door-to-door manual meter reading.
                                  (2) IC card meters: making payment in advance, and requiring a card as a transmission medium.
                                  (3) Wired remote water meters: requiring wiring in advance and a wired connection.
                                  (4) Wireless remote water meters: using wireless networks for data transmission, featuring timed reading & receiving, and remote control.

                                  NB-IoT narrow band and GPRS 2G wireless networks are among the wireless networks most frequently used in the water meter market. Wireless water meters in use today are unstable in data transmission and consume much power, leading to poor interference resistance and low data transmission security. In addition, the service life of batteries cannot meet expectations, increasing maintenance costs and management difficulties.

                                  In light of the current development trends of the wireless water meter market and technical features and pain points of users, HAOCHENG Enterprise provides power supply solutions with long service life and high reliability for real-time metering as part of the clients’ equipment.The solutions can also provide high pulse load performance for wireless water meter communication, even in high and low temperature environments. HAOCHENG Enterprise, joined by overseas R&D teams, keeps optimizing and improving product performance to meet the ever-growing demands of product functionality. HAOCHENG Enterprise boasts lithium manganese batteries with unique coating process, unique drying & dehumidifying systems, automatic lithium thionyl chloride electrolyte preparation process, and highly automated battery assembly equipment. With the above equipment and systems, HAOCHENG Enterprise provides products featuring consistency, dimensional design flexibility, and rate discharge superior to the market average.


                                  ER+ Power Supply Solution of HAOCHENG Enterprise

                                  HAOCHENG Enterprise provides a complete power supply solution for the wireless water meter industry by combining ER+ solution lithium thionyl chloride and battery capacitors. In the battery combination solution, UPC can be vividly regarded as a power amplifier (with a capacity that can be neglected), but it plays a part in all pulse currents during its service life. The larger the pulse current is, the higher the demand of UPC will be. During the interval when pulse is not needed, UPC is charged by the lithium thionyl chloride battery . The working principles are as shown in Fig. 1 and 2:


                                  Fig. 1   Schematic Diagram of Working Principles of ER+ Solution


                                  Fig. 2   UPC Providing Pulse Current in ER+ Scheme

                                  Compared with traditional battery solutions, the ER+battery solution of HAOCHENG Enterprise has 4 advantages:

                                  01   Wide working temperature range

                                  It supports real-time functions including normal opening and closing of valves and remote data communication of wireless water meters in any environment from -40℃ to +85℃. It provides a pulse working current of at least 350mA, even in the harshest low temperature environment -40℃ (UPC1520350mA@-40℃&UPC1550: 1000mA@-40℃).

                                  02    High instantaneous output power

                                  The maximum pulse current 5000mA/15W, enough to provide at least dozens of pulse power output for GPRS, NB-IoT, and other wireless communications.

                                  03    30% minimum capacity increase

                                  The capacity in this solution is at least 30% higher than other batteries of the same model, ensuring steady, low current discharge to support real-time metering, RTC power supply, dormancy standby, and other wireless water meters functions for decades.

                                  04   No Voltage Delay

                                  With this combination solution, voltage delay of lithium thionyl chloride batteries can be prevented, avoiding influence on regular work of equipment due to battery passivation or loss of expected service life.

                                  The above merits are of great importance for wireless water meters and cannot be replaced by other batteries or technical solutions.

                                  In practice, clients of wireless water meter projects care most about the achieving rate (success rate) of wireless data communication and safe and reliable operation. In the technical solution of HAOCHENG Enterprise, the core aspect is whether the UPC is able to produce sufficient pulse output under polar temperature conditions. In failing to do so, the equipment enters failure mode in advance because remote communication cannot be provided.


                                  Fig. 3   350 mA Pulse Discharge Performance Curve of UPC1520 under Different Temperatures

                                  Data in the above diagram suggest that UPC has very high output pulse performance in very low temperature environments and stands well in comparison to competing products.

                                  According to the features of NB-IoT wireless communication transmission technology, network transmission can be divided into three working stages. After reporting data, the NB-IoT terminal processes the instructions issued by the platform in advance after a three minute delay and then enters dormancy. As a result, the process from connection status to sleeping status generally has above three power consumption modes. In connection status, power consumption, output power, and pulse current load demand peak (current:200-350mA, pulse width: tens of milliseconds). Based on the data of the chart above, it is easy to conclude through analysis that the battery pack is able to provide at least 350mA pulse current at an extremely low temperature of -40℃. In other words, the wireless water meters can be used normally in such harsh environments without data communication failure due to temperature. The UPC battery capacitor is able to provide discharge capacity much larger than that of traditional super capacitors. Capacity tops out at 124mAh, 95 times that of super capacitors, when the capacitor discharges at 100mA. Capacity tops out at 36mAh, 27 times that of super capacitors, when the capacitor discharges at 2A. This ensures accurate and real time wireless communication data transmission with efficient achievement rates.


                                  Fig. 4  EDLC Rate Discharge


                                  Fig. 5  UPC1520 Rate Discharge


                                  Overall, equipment service life can be met if lithium primary batteries and the combination battery scheme are used for wireless water meter equipment. HAOCHENG Enterprise, with a unique capacity for scientific research of products and technologies, provides the most suitable technical solution. Reliability assessments of data modeling in a project’s early period and product operation monitoring during a project’s implementation provide product guarantees for water industry users. High pulse performance enables accurate data transmission achievement rates, ensuring reliable operation of wireless water meters in harsh conditions during summers and winters. This optimizes equipment investment expenditure of water plants, reduces risks and operation costs, and realizes a relativity high return on investment.

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